Will it work if I …
Scientific changes take place when food is cooked. There is an interaction between ingredients. These changes are sometimes vital for the mouthfeel of the cooked end-product. The ultimate enjoyment of food whilst eating is affected by these factors.
When students make judgements about recipes and ingredients, they may start with a basic knowledge related to previous experiences, likes or dislikes.
Experience of cooking and using ingredients begins to help students to gain confidence to change and adapt recipes. Gradually students will be able to manipulate basics to create their own recipes.
Essential knowledge includes: the function of ingredients, consequences of cooking methods, flavour combinations, texture requirements, nutritional needs and cost.
PLANNING EXPERIMENTAL COOKERY
You need to consider
KNOW YOUR INGREDIENTS and how the ingredients affect recipes
Seasonings are salt, sea salt, peppercorns, white ground pepper, mixed peppercorns
Other seasoning ingredients are dried and fresh spices, dried and fresh herbs, vinegars
Condiments such as mustards, dressings, ketchups, chutneys, sauces, fruit sauces, BBQ spices, chillies, soy sauces, rice wine, hoisin sauce, peri-peri sauce.
Basic, root ginger, black pepper, vanilla pods, citrus peel, umami paste, mint, sage, marjoram, tarragon, camomile, jasmine, garlic, shallots, horseradish, coriander, mace, nutmeg, aniseed, star anise, lime leaves.
CLASSIFICATION OF INGREDIENTS:
FATS Margarine & Spreads, sunflower, soft, block fats, salted, slightly and unsalted spreads, white fats: Trex, lard, dripping
DAIRY Pasteurised fresh milk, sterilised milk, cheeses, yogurts, sour cream, créme fraiche cream (double, single, whipping), butter, ghee
DRY INGREDIENTS Caster sugar, granulated sugars, brown sugars, flour, cornflour, strong bread flour, fine pasta flour, wholemeal, granary flour, arrowroot, semolina
STAPLES (store cupboard ingredients) dried pulses – lentils, split peas, dried beans, honey, syrup, treacle, molasses, honey, jam, noodles, pasta, rice
OILS Plant oils: olive, sunflower, corn, rapeseed, vegetable oils
PERISHABLE Salad ingredients, fresh fish, fresh meats, ham, bacon, fresh vegetables and fruits, breads.
FUNCTION OF INGREDIENTS
FRUIT & VEG
Combines / mix
FOOD SCIENCE BASICS
Colloids are formed when two substances aggregate and cannot be separated. The substances are dispersed within each other, gas in solid as in a risen cake, or water in fat as in butter.
Suspensions are formed when two products are mixed by stirring but settle out after standing, like flour (starch) and water
Solutions are formed when one substance dissolves in another. Sugar in water for example.
Concentrates have increased number of solutes within a solution. Fruit juice concentrates are diluted with water in fruit drinks. Meat concentrates are in stock cubes. Reduction sauces rely on concentrating the flavours within the sauce by boiling off water.
FOOD FLAVOUR PAIRING
Unlikely ingredients such as chocolate and blue cheese have enough flavour compounds in common to indicate that they may taste good together. A flavour ‘thesaurus’ is a reference guide for flavour combinations.
HOW CAN TEXTURE BE CHANGED?
Raising agents are ingredients that provide gases that will raise a mixture and make it have a light and open texture.
Raising agents can be chemicals such as sodium bicarbonate or Cream of Tartar. Sodium bicarbonate also called Bicarbonate of Soda is an alkali. It is used on its own as a raising agent in gingerbread, crinkle biscuits and parkin cake. Cream of tartar is an acidic powder generally used together with bicarbonate of soda in scones and cakes. Baking powder is a ready to use mix of bicarbonate of soda with cream of tartar and rice flour.
Raising agents can be biological such as yeast which is available fresh or dried. In both cases given time and a food source, water and warmth, they will produce a gas called carbon dioxide. The gas will cause a dough, or a cake mix, to rise. Blinis, stollen, doughnuts and breads rely on yeast to create their unique textures. Flatbreads, tortilla and fajita are unleavened breads. They do not include raising agents or yeast in their recipes.
FAULTS IN FOOD PREPARATION
Basic recipes are those which use the correct proportion and type of ingredients and cooking method to ensure a successful outcome. Once a basic recipe has been used with confidence and understood, changes, adaptions and modifications can be made.
150g plain white flour
75g butter or block margarine
2 tblsp cold water
Use Rubbing-in method
225g ‘OO’ pasta flour
1 tsp salt
2 small eggs
1 egg yolK
1 tsp olive oil
1 -3 tblsp cold water
Combine and knead
Rest and chill before putting though machine or rolling out
Use wholemeal flour and more water to make wholemeal pasta
300ml semi-skimmed milk
20g white flour
20g butter or yellow spread
Blend and stir continuously until boiling point
RECIPE ADAPTATION & MODIFICATION
125g unsalted butter
75g caster sugar
250g plain white flour
1 tsp baking powder
I small egg plus 1 yolk
Dust with icing sugar
Adapt the recipe by adding 25g desiccated coconut ( taking out 25g flour)
Add 1 tsp coffee powder
Add 1 tsp ground ginger
Make a buttercream and sandwich biscuits together
BASIC RECIPES FOR MODIFICATION AND ADAPTATION
The ingredients used in a recipe are in proportion to each other. This is important if the recipe is to be successful. Learning about the proportions helps you to make judgements when modifying the recipe.
100g S.R. Flour
100g Soft margarine or baking spread
100g caster sugar
2 medium eggs
Use Creaming method to prepare
75g plain flour
Make using Whisking method
200g S.R. Flour
75g baking spread or butter
1 egg plus
1 tblsp milk
Make using Rubbing-in Method
100g Plain Flour
I level tsp bicarb-of-soda
1.5 tsp ground ginger
75g black treacle
4 tsp milk
Make using the melting method
A TEST KITCHEN
A test kitchen is where experimental work with food and recipes takes place.
This work is planned, tested and recorded. It is often called New Product Development (NPD)
New recipes need to be repeated several times with ingredients from different retail outlets to see if they work well each time.
Planning to create a NEW RECIPE of your own after using a basic recipe:
Change the process
Skip a process
Evaluate at every stage – review your modification – Did it work? What happened? Did you test it?
Ask what people think. Collect comments. Did it meet expectations? Did it satisfy needs?
Think about the function of each basic ingredient:
Is it a main part of the structure?
Will it affect the cost?
Is it pre-prepared?
Does it add texture?
Does it affect the colour?
Does it contribute to the health profile of the product?
The importance of improving, getting better, gaining confidence and understanding ingredients comes with practical work experiences.
Here is a list to support your thinking ‘ Will it work if I ‘ . . .
Take influence from another country / cuisine
Take influence from retail outlet products (Tesco Finest range)
Take influence from a T.V. Chef?
Change the size – go larger / go mini
Change the shape and/or colour
Use a different cooking method
Decorate or garnish
Add a sauce or dip
Add an extra layer
Alter the nutritional profile
Change genre from savour to sweet or starter to dessert
Make a different end product – pizza from scone mix